One of the most eminent Chinese Buddhist masters of the twentieth
century, Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua (Xuanhua, 1918-1995) was a monastic
reformer and the first Chinese master to teach Buddhism to large numbers
of Westerners. During his long career he emphasized the primacy of the
monastic tradition, the essential role of moral education, the need for
Buddhists to ground themselves in traditional spiritual practice and
authentic scripture, and the importance of respect and understanding
among religions. To attain these goals, he focused on clarifying the
essential principles of the Buddha’s original teachings, on establishing
a properly ordained monastic community, on organizing and supporting the
translation of the Buddhist Canon into English and other languages, and
on the establishment of schools, religious training programs, and
programs of academic research and teaching.
Born in 1918 into a peasant family in a small village south of Harbin,
in northeast China, the Master was the youngest of ten children. His
father's surname was Bai, and his mother's maiden name was Hu. His
mother was a vegetarian, and throughout her life she held to the
practice of reciting the name of the Buddha Amitabha. When the Master
formally became a Buddhist, in his mid-teens, he was given the Dharma
name Anci (“Peace and Compassion”). and after becoming a monk, he was
also known as Dulun (“Liberator from the Wheel of Rebirth”). Upon
granting him the Dharma-seal of the Weiyang lineage, the Elder Chan
Master Xuyun (1840-1959) bestowed upon him the Dharma-transmission name
Hsüan Hua (Xuanhua — “To Proclaim and Transform”).
When the Master was a child, he followed his mother's example, eating
only vegetarian food and reciting the Buddha's name. When he was eleven
years old, upon seeing a dead baby lying on the ground, he awakened to
the fundamental significance of birth and death and the impermanence of
all phenomena. He then resolved to become a monk and practice on the
Buddhist Path, but he acquiesced to his mother’s request that he not do
so until after her death. When he was twelve, he obtained his parents’
permission to travel extensively in search of a true spiritual teacher.
At the age of fifteen, the Master went to school for the first time, and
when he was sixteen, he started lecturing on the Buddhist Sutras to help
this fellow villagers who were illiterate but who wanted to learn about
the Buddha’s teachings. He was not only diligent and focused but
possessed a photographic memory, and so he was able to memorize the Four
Books and the Five Classics of the Confucian tradition. He had also
studied traditional Chinese medicine, astrology, divination,
physiognomy, and the scriptures of the great religions. When he was
seventeen, he established a free school, in which, as the lone teacher,
he taught some thirty impoverished children and adults.
At the age of eighteen, after only two and a half years of schooling, he
left school to care for his terminally ill mother. He was nineteen when
she died, and for three years he honored her memory by sitting in
meditation beside her grave in a hut made of sorghum stalks. During this
time, while reading the Avataṃaska Sūtra, he experienced a deep
awakening. Subsequently, while seated in deep meditation, he had a
vision of the Sixth Chan Buddhist Patriarch Huineng (638–713 CE). In his
vision, Master Huineng came to visit him and to give him the mission of
bringing Buddhism to the Western world.
At the end of his period of mourning, the Master took as his teacher
Chan Buddhist Master Changzhi, and he entered Three Conditions Monastery
as a novice monk. Chan Master Changzhi subsequently transmitted to him
the Dharma of the Jinding Pilu Chan lineage. During this time, the
Master devoted himself not only to meditation but also to the study of
the Buddhist scriptural tradition and to the mastery of all the major
schools of Chinese Buddhism.
In 1946 the Master began the long journey to the south of China. In
1947, he received full ordination as a monk at the Buddhist holy
mountain Putuoshan. In 1948, after over two thousand miles of travel,
the Master arrived at Nanhua Monastery and bowed to Chan Master Xuyun,
China’s most widely revered enlightened master. From him the Master
received the mind-seal transmission as verification of his awakening,
and later a more formal transmission of the Dharma of the Weiyang
lineage of the Chan School.
In 1949 the Master left China for Hong Kong. There he taught meditation,
lectured on the Buddhist Sūtras, and sponsored their printing. He also
commissioned the making of images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and he
aided monastic refugees from mainland China. He also built Western Bliss
Garden Monastery (Xie Yuan), established the Buddhist Lecture Hall, and
rebuilt and renovated Flourishing Compassion Monastery (Ciing
In 1962, he traveled to the United States, at the invitation of several
of his Hong Kong disciples who had settled in San Francisco, and he
began lecturing at the San Francisco Buddhist Lecture Hall, which had
been previously established as a branch of the Buddhist Lecture Hall in
Hong Kong. As the community at the Buddhist Lecture Hall in San
Francisco grew, both in size and in diversity, the institution’s name
was changed, first to the Sino-American Buddhist Association and then to
the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association. In 1976 the Master established
the organization’s first branch monastery – Gold Wheel Temple in Los
Angeles – and he established a new headquarters as well, the City of Ten
Thousand Buddhas, in Ukiah, California.
In the summer of 1968, the Master began the intensive training of a
group of Americans, most of them university students. In 1969, he
astonished the monastic community of Taiwan by sending there, for
complete ordination, two American women and three American men whom he
had ordained as novices. They were the first Americans of that period to
become fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns. During subsequent years,
the Master trained and oversaw the ordination of hundreds of people,
both Asians and Westerners, from among the multitudes who came to
California from every part of the world to study with him. These
monastic disciples now teach in the twenty-eight temples, monasteries
and convents that the Master founded in the United States, Canada, and
several Asian countries.
The Master was determined to transmit to the West the original and
correct teachings of Buddhism, and he categorically rejected what he
considered to be corrupt practices that had become widespread in China.
He guided his disciples in distinguishing between genuine,
scripture-based practices that were useful and in accord with common
sense, as opposed to ritual superstitions that were unwholesome cultural
Among the many reforms in monastic practice that he instituted was his
insistence that his monastic disciples accord with the ancient practice
of wearing the monastic robe or precept-sash (kaṃāya) as a sign of
membership in the monastic Sangha. He himself followed, and he required
that his monastic disciples follow the prohibition against eating after
noon. He considered a vegetarian diet to be of paramount importance. He
encouraged his disciples among the Sangha to join him in following the
Buddha's beneficial ascetic practices of eating only one meal a day and
of never lying down. Of his monastic disciples he required strict
purity, and he encouraged his lay disciples to adhere to the five
precepts of the Buddhist laity.
Although he understood English well and spoke it when necessary, the
Master almost always lectured in Chinese. His aim was to encourage his
Western disciples to learn Chinese, so that they could help to fulfill
his wish that the Buddhist Canon be translated into other languages. So
far, the Buddhist Text Translation Society, which he founded, has
published over a well over a hundred volumes of translations, including
several of the major Mahayana Sūtras with the Master’s commentaries.
As an educator, the Master was tireless. At the City of Ten Thousand
Buddhas, he established formal training programs for monastics and for
laity, elementary and secondary schools for boys and for girls, and
Dharma Realm Buddhist University. From 1968 to the early 1990’s he
himself gave lectures on Sūtras at least once a day, and he traveled
extensively on speaking tours. Responding to requests from Buddhists
around the world, the Master led delegations to Hong Kong, Taiwan,
India, Southeast Asia, and Europe to propagate the Dharma. He also
traveled to Burma, Australia and South America. His presence drew a
multitude of the faithful everywhere he went. He was also often invited
to lecture at universities and academic conferences.
The Master was a pioneer in building bridges between different Buddhist
communities. Wishing to heal the ancient schism between Mahayana
Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism, he invited distinguished Theravada
monks to the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas to share the duties of full
ordination and transmission of the monastic precepts, which the two
traditions hold in common.
He also insisted on inter-religious respect and actively promoted
interfaith dialogue. He stressed commonalities in religious traditions,
above all their emphasis on proper and compassionate conduct. Together
with his friend Paul Cardinal Yubin, who had been archbishop of Nanjing
and who was the Chancellor of the Catholic Furen University in Taiwan,
he established the Institute for World Religions in Berkeley.
In 1990, at the invitation of Buddhists in several European countries,
the Master led a large delegation on a European Dharma tour, knowing
full well that, because of his ill health at the time, the rigors of the
trip would shorten his life. However, as always he considered the Dharma
more important than his very life. After his return, his health
gradually deteriorated, yet, while quite ill, he made another major
tour, this time to Taiwan, in 1993.
In Los Angeles, on June 7, 1995 at the age of 77, the Venerable Master
entered nirvana. When he was alive, he craved nothing, seeking neither
fame nor wealth nor power. His every thought and every action were for
the sake of bringing true happiness to all sentient beings. In his final
instructions he said: “After I depart, you can recite the Avataṃaska
Sūtra and the name of the Buddha Amitābha for however many days you
would like, perhaps seven days or forty-nine days. After cremating my
body, scatter all my remains in the air. I do not want you to do
anything else at all. Do not build me any pagodas or memorials. I came
into the world without anything; when I depart, I still do not want
anything, and I do not want to leave any traces in the world….From
emptiness I came; to emptiness I am returning.”
The Eighteen Great Vows
of Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua
1) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
Bodhisattva in the three periods of time throughout the ten directions
of the Dharma Realm, to the very ends of empty space, has yet not become
2) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
Solitary Sage in the three periods of time throughout the ten directions
of the Dharma Realm, to the very ends of empty space, has yet not become
3) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
Hearer of the Teaching in the three periods of time throughout the ten
directions of the Dharma Realm, to the very ends of empty space, has not
yet become a Buddha.
4) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
god in the Three Realms has not yet become a Buddha.
5) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
human being in the worlds of the ten directions has not yet become a
6) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
asura among people and gods has not yet become a Buddha.
7) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
animal has not yet become a Buddha.
8) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
hungry ghost has not yet become a Buddha.
9) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even one
being in the hells has not yet become a Buddha.
10) I vow that I will not realize right enlightenment as long as even
one being in the Three Realms who has taken refuge with me has not
become a Buddha — whether that being is a god, ascetic master, human,
asura, or animal that swims or flies, or whether a dragon, beast, ghost,
or other inhabitant of the spirit-realm.
11) I vow to dedicate all the blessings and happiness that that I am due
to enjoy to all the beings of the Dharma Realm.
12) I vow to fully take upon myself all the anguish and hardship that
all the beings in the Dharma Realm are due to suffer. 13) I vow to
appear in innumerable kinds of bodies in order to reach the minds of all
the beings throughout the universe who do not believe in the Buddha’s
Dharma, so that I may cause them to correct their faults and become
good, to repent and to start anew, to take refuge with the Three Jewels
and finally to become Buddhas.
14) I vow that any being who sees my face or simply hears my name will
immediately resolve to awaken and to follow the Path all the way to
15) I vow to respectfully observe the Buddha's instructions and to
maintain the practice of eating only one meal a day.
16) I vow to bring all beings everywhere to enlightenment by teaching
each in accord with the various capabilities of each.
17) I vow, in this very life, to open the five spiritual eyes and to
gain the six spiritual powers and the freedom to fly.
18) I vow to make certain that that all my vows are fulfilled.
To these personal vows he added the universal vows of the Bodhisattva:
Living beings are countless, but I vow to save them all.
Afflictions are endless, yet I vow to end them all.
Dharma-methods can’t be numbered; still, I vow to learn them all.
The Buddha’s Path is unsurpassed, and I vow to realize it.